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PRESENT STATUS OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN INDIA
 
Mohammed Ali
 

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi – 110062, India. Email: maliphyto@gmail.com; mali_hamdard@yahoo.co.in

 
Abstract:Interest in herbal drugs is growing due to their efficiency, low toxicity and absence of side effects. The world flora is a renewable non-exhaustive source of bioactive compounds. The Indian government has banned 29 endangered species of medicinal plants from their natural habitats and encouraged to grow 32 plant drugs on the basis of market demand. However, environmental factors in relation to potent phytoconstituents and therapeutic efficiency are neglected in many cases for cultivation of the plant drugs. The demand of Indian herbal drugs in the international trade is less than 0.5 per cent mainly due to the presence of toxic components. The therapeutic uses of folklore Indian herbal drugs have been evaluated successfully and many new medicinal plants and therapeutic uses have been discovered. The Indian phytochemists have studied mainly medicinal and aromatic plants. But isolation techniques for target compounds have not been developed for majority of traditional drugs due to lack of research facilities, poor multidisciplinary coordination and market demand of pharmaceutical industries. Many institutions are engaged to develop standardization parameters for the herbal drugs. Since prevention is better than treatment, hygiene programmes should be started to aware the Indian public about useful and toxic plants. About 0.75 per cent herbal drugs have been studied in clinical trials.
 
Key words: Herbal medicines, Agrotechnology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, Quality control.
 
 
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES OF ANTIDIABETIC INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW
 
B. Dinesh Kumar*, A. Mitra and M. Manjunatha
 

School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302
*Corresponding author E-mail: dkb@iitkgp.ac.in

Abstract: : Many medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems of the world. Medicinal plants are significant source of biological compounds and many of the currently available biological compounds have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The major focus of this review is on anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants like Achillea ligutica, Aegles marmelos, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Bergenia ciliata, Brassica juncea, Commelina communis, Euonymus alatus, Ficus bengalensis, Gymnema sylvestre, Mangifera indica, Medicago sativa, Momordica charantia, Murraya koenigii, Pterocarpus marsupium, Syzigium cumini, Trigonella foenum graecum, Tinospora cripa, Tournefortia haetwegiana (active constituents and crude extracts). These medicinal plants act on various mechanismseither by acting directly on pancreas and stimulate insulin levels in blood or by altering the activities of regulatory enzymes in different pathways like glycolysis, gluconeogensis and thus producing effects on tissues like liver, muscle, adipose tissue etc. All medicinal plants, as specified, have shown different degrees of anti-diabetic activity.
 
Key words: Medicinal Plants; Diabetes; hypoglycemic; Animal model; â-cell lines
 
 
IMPACT OF AMLA (EMBILICA OFFICINALIS) SUPPLEMENTATION
ON THE GLYCEMIC AND LIPIDEMIC STATUS OF TYPE 2 DIABETIC SUBJECTS
 
U. Iyer*, A. Joshi, S. Dhruv
 
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Faculty of Family and Community Sciences, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara -390 002, Gujarat, India Coresponding author E-mail: umamsufn@hotmail.com, Phone: 098240-56921
 
Abstract: To study the impact of Amla supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects, 45 stable T2DM subjects were enrolled from the clinics and were divided into two groups, control group (N=17) and experimental group (N=28). The data were collected on general information, background information, clinical information, anthropometry and 24 hour dietary recall along with fasting blood sugar,
lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin. Supplementation of one medium size Amla (35g) for sixty days led to a non significant decrease in the FBS values in the experimental group. This was not accompanied by any change in the GHb levels. Supplementation with Amla brought significant changes in the lipid profile of the diabetic subjects. There was a 5.7% decrease in the total cholesterol (TC) values (190 vs 179 mg/dl). The atherogenic lipoprotein LDL-C decreased by about 9.4%. The HDL-C increased by about 5.5%. Further there was an 8.3% decrease in the Non HDL-C values. Favourable response was seen in diabetic subjects who had TC > 200 mg/dl as compared to those having TC< 200 mg/dl. A 23.4% reduction was observed in TG in those diabetic subjects who had TG> 150 mg/dl (p< 0.001). The favourable redistribution of lipoproteins with Amla supplementation had a significant positive impact on the atherogenic indices lowering the risk of CHD in the diabetic subjects.
 
Key words: Amla, Blood sugar, Glycated haemoglobin, Lipid status
 
 
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON ICHNOCARPUS FRUTESCENS (L.) R.BR.

C. Kalidass1, D. Amish Abragam1 and V. R. Mohan2*


1Ethnopharmacology unit, Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tutuicorin-8.
2Research Department of Botany, St. John’s College, Palayamkottai-2.
*Corresponding author e-mail: vrmohan_2005@yahoo.com


Abstract: Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.)R.Br. known to the Palliyar as Palvalli is an important medicinal plant. The Palliyar tribe, inhabitants of the Saduragiri hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. use root of this plant to treat diabetes and also to eliminate stones in the gall bladder. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the root and stem of the said plant. Pharmacognostic studies include microscopic, physicochemical constant (ash & extractive valves), Fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical evalutions.

Key words: Ichnocarpus frutescens, preliminary phytochemical and pharmacognosy.
 
 
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF EULOPHIA OCHREATA L. TUBERS

S. Devkar, S.Jagtap, Y. Kale, D Kasote*


Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Medical College Campus, Bharati Vidyapeeth University,
Pune – 411043   *Corresponding author e-mail: deepak_kasote@yahoo.com

Abstract:Antibacterial activity of hexane, methanol, ethyl acetate and water extract of Eulophia ochreata L. tubers were evaluated against bacterial strains of Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity of extracts was determined by using agar well diffusion method. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms. Present study reveals that among the four extracts of Eulophia ochreata tubers, hexane extract is the most effective against tested microorganisms.

Key words: Antibacterial activity, Eulophia ochreata, Tubers
 
 
DIURETIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND
METHANOL EXTRACTS OF ALTERNANTHERA PUNGENS LEAVES

1 R. Meera, 2* P. Devi, 3 N.J. Merlin, 4B.S. Kameswari


1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, 3 Department of Pharmacology, 4Department of Biochemistry, K.M.College Pharmacy, Uthangudi, Madurai-625107,Tamilnadu, India and Bharatidasan University, Trichy       E.Mail : devipmpharma@yahoo.com.

Abstract: Crude aqueous and methanol extract of Alternanthera pungens leaves were tested for diuretic and antimicrobial activity. The diuretic activity was tested in rats at the dose 500 and 1000 mg/Kg, orally and compared with furosemide (20mg/ Kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard.The antibacterial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis ,Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus ,Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aureginosa and Salmonella typhi at concentrations of 100,250 and 500 µg/disc respectively.The antifungal activity against Aspergillus
niger, Candida albicans was also tested at the same concentrations. Amikacin and Griseofulvin (10, 20 µg/disc) was used as reference control for the antibacterial and antifungal study.The extract was found to possess significant dose dependent diuretic activity and was found effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria in a concentration dependent manner.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Diuretic activity, Alternanthera pungens, Aqueous and Methanol extracts.
 
 
IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ADIANTUM LUNULATUM

O. Sawant, V. J. Kadam, R. Ghosh*


1 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector 8, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai - 400614, India.
*Corresponding authors email- rumi 1968@ hotmail.com

Abstract: Antioxidants act as a major defense against radical-medicated toxicity by protecting against the damage caused by free radicals. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROSs) have been implicated in more than 100 diseases, including malaria, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, heart disease, stroke, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The present study deals with in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Adiantum lunulatum by using DPPH assay, total phenolic content, reducing power assay, H2O2 radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and. total antioxidant activity. The % scavenging activity at different concentrations was determined and the IC50 value of the extracts was compared with that of standard, ascorbic acid. The highest free radical scavenging effect of the whole plant extract was observed at concentration of 2500 ìg/ml. These results clearly indicate that whole plant of Adiantum lunulatum possesses free radical scavenging activity

Key Words: Antioxidants, ROS, Adiantum lunulatum, free radicals, DPPH.
 
 
ANTIMICROBIAL AND HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF MARINE
SPONGE - HALICHONDRIA PANICEA

P. Prahalathan, S. Bragadeeswaran,* R1. Sasikala, U. Kanagaraj,
P. Kumaravel


Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608502, Tamilnadu, India    1Department of Biotechnology, E.G. S. Pillai Arts and Science College, Nagapattinam - 611002, Tamilnadu,   *Corresponding author -E mail: psgene_bio@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: : The marine environment has proven to be a rich source of natural products with novel structures; it is also a potentially rich source of therapeutically useful agents. The marine sponge (porifera), collected from southeast coast of India (Rameswaram) and their extract have been tested for antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The chloroform: methanol (2:1) extract of marine sponge halichondria panicea showed antimicrobial activity against Lactobacillus and Vibrio cholerae but the methanol and aqueous extract failed to inhibit the growth of any bacteria. The crude methanol, chloroform: methanol (2:1) and aqueous extracts of marine sponge induced pronounced hemolysis on chicken and goat blood.

Key words:
Sponge, Halichondria panicea, Lactobacillus and Vibrio cholerae
 
 
ANTI-ULCER EFFECTS OF HENNA (LAWSONIA INNERMIS L.) LEAVES AGAINST GASTRIC ULCERS IN RATS

Md. L. Ahmed¹, Md. S. Khalid¹, R. S. Kulkarni², S. Paramjyoti*².


1.Department of Pharmacology, Luqman College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga, India   2.Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, India *Correspondence author email- mlapharm@rediffmail.com

Abstract: The antiulcer effects of aqueous, chloroform and ethanol extracts prepared from the henna leaves was evaluated in rats employing the pylorus ligation, stress induced and aspirin induced models. The parameters taken to assess antiulcer activity were volume of gastric juice, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. The results indicated that chloroform extract significantly (p<0.001) decreased the volume of gastric acid secretions, free acidity and total acidity and ulcer index.

Keywords: Henna, Antiulcer effect, Pylorus ligation, Aspirin, Stress
 
 
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BERBERIS TINCTORIA LESCH. ROOT AND ROOT BARK

J. M. Sasikumar*, V. Maheshu and R. Jayadev


Department of Biotechnology, Karpagam University, Coimbatore - 641 021 (T. N.), INDIA,
Corresponding author email: jmsashikumar@yahoo.co.in, Tel: +91 422 4211146

Abstract: : The root and root bark of Berberis tinctoria (Common Nilgiri Barberry), which is used in traditional system of medicine in Nilgiri District, Western Ghats, India, was extracted with methanol and screened for their in vitro antioxidant effects using two assay models viz. 1, 1 – Diphenyl Picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay and ferric reducing power. The plant parts were then subjected to determination of total phenolic content and they yielded 730±0.021 mg/100 GAE in root and 736±0.016730±0.021 mg/100 GAE for root bark. The results were analyzed statistically by regression analysis. The methanolic extracts of both the root and root bark exhibited significant DPPH radical quenching activity with IC50 values of 43.67±1.65 and 52.67±2.34mg/ml respectively. The extracts were also found to exert a strong reducing power activity. Based on this study, it was concluded that B. tinctoria possessed a strong antioxidant activity that is comparable to that of reference compound Butyl
Hydroxy Anisole (BHA).

Key words: Berberis tinctoria, antioxidant activity, methanol extract, DPPH assay, reducing power.
 
 
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF
PORTULACA OLERACEA IN CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED PAW
EDEMA IN RATS

S.D.Sanja*1, N.R.Sheth2, N.K.Patel2, Dhaval Patel3, Biraju Patel3, Chirag Patel3


*1 B.K.Mody Govt. Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. 2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. 3 Veerayatan Institute of Pharmacy, Mandvi, Gujarat, India. Corresponding authors E-Mail:dhaval_pharmacist@rediffmail.com, sureshsanja@gmail.com Tel.: +91 99 790 22 666, +91 99 095 41 247.

Abstract :The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea. Inflammatory diseases including different types of rheumatic diseases are very common throughout the world. Therefore the search for a better tolerated anti-inflammatory agent appears to be a necessity. Portulaca oleracea is used as a folk medicine for the
treatment of inflammation in India. Present study revealed that the plant Portulaca oleracea possesses a significant anti-inflammatory activity as evidencesd in carrageenan induced paw edema method, which supports the folkloric claim of the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant. Our finding supports the reported therapeutic use of herb Portulaca oleracea in tribal medicine for the treatment of inflammation.

Key words: Inflammatory disease, Portulaca oleracea, herbal drugs.
 
 
THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF BARLERIA
GRANDIFLORA DALZ. (ACANTHACEAE)

H.A.Sawarkar*, S.S.Khadabadi, M.D.Wandhare, I.A.Farooqui and U.A.Deokate


Govt. College of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry Department, Kathora Naka, Amaravati(M.S.)  *Corresponding author Email- mrhemant1979@gmail.com

Abstract: The Purpose of this study is to justify the ethno pharmacological use of leaves of Barleria grandiflora Dalz. (Acanthaceae) in treatment of mouth ulcers. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Barleria grandiflora Dalz. were evaluated for the antioxidant activity by the FTC and TBA methods. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves of Barleria grandiflora are potential source of natural antioxidants. Initial phytochemical screening of the extracts has shown the presence of flavanoids, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates and amino acids.

Key words: Antioxidant activity, Barleria grandiflora, FTC and TBA methods.
 
 
NOOTROPIC EFFECT OF MP-1: A POLYHERBAL FORMULATION ON COGNITIVE DEFICIT INDUCED BY HYPOXIA AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL

S.V. Tembhurne1*, A.G. Jagtap1, D.M. Sakarkar2


1Bombay College of Pharmacy Kalina Santacruz (E) Mumbai 400098, 2Sudhakarrao Naik Institute of Pharmacy Pusad. 445204. Corresponding author Email: stembhurne@gmail.com Cell-09922070123, ajagtap@bcpindia.org

Abstract: In the present study the effectiveness of a polyherbal formulation MP1was investigated on cognitive performance and also its antioxidant potential in mice. The effect of oral administration of the formulation on cognitive function was evaluated using NaNO2 intoxication model (i.e. hypoxia induced dementia). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH free radicals, invitro and ex-vivo lipid peroxidation. The results of the study indicate that oral administration of MP1 at a dose of 300 mg and 400mg/kg for 8 days significantly improved cognitive functions, which was comparable to standard Mentat (100mg/kg) in NaNO2 induced dementia in mice. The result also indicates the ability of MP1 at concentration 5-500µg/ml to scavenge the free radicals and also inhibit the lipid peroxidation at (10-1000µg/ml) in brain homogenates. Oral administrations of MP1 at a dose of 200mg and 400mg/ kg for 8 days significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in ex-vivo assay. The antioxidant activity of MP1were comparable with vitamin C and vitamin E in both invitro and exvivo lipid peroxidation study respectively. The results suggest the nootropic effect of MP1 and its anti-oxidant potential.

Key words: Cognition, hypoxia, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant.
 
 
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES OF
“TEPHROSIA PURPUREA” LINN. AERIAL AND ROOT PARTS

S. Gopalakrishnan*, E. Vadivel and K. Dhanalakshmi


Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-627 012, India. *Corresponding author Email: sgkmsu@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In ayurvedic the leaves of the Tephrosia purpurea Linn. is useful in jaundice and the decoction of the roots given in dyspepsia, diarrhea rheumatism, asthma and urinary disorders. In order to ensure the use of only genuine and uniform material in preparation of herbal formulation, work on standardization was carried out. Microscopic, physicochemical and phytochemical studies, have been carried out, which would facilitate quick identification and selection of the drug from various adulterants. Even though the whole plant have medicinal important the present investigation will be useful towards establishing comparative pharmacognostic standards of aerial and root parts

Key Words:Tephrosia Purpurea Linn, pharmacognostic standardization, physicochemical studies.
 
 
BIOTOXICITY OF MYCOINSECTICIDE BEAUVERIA BASSIANA (BALSAMO) VUILLEMIN, AGAINST LATER LARVAL INSTARS OF GRAM POD BORER - HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HUBNER)

A. Prasad and N. Syed


Insect Microbial & Herbal Control Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University College of Science, Mohan Lal Sukhadia, University, Udaipur (Rajasthan)313001 Corresponding authors E-mail address : artimlsu@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : noctuidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests worldwide . Currently, the application of chemical insecticides is the most common method of controlling this pest on crops for which the pest is becoming resistant thus creating environmental hazards. In the present investigations , one of the potent mycobiopesticide Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin , has been evaluated against later instars (IVth and Vth) of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) .Larvae were reared on artificial diet [7] and treated topically with four different concentrations i.e. 0.1,0.125,0.2 and 0.25ml of 1x108 conidia /ml of fungus .The results were very encouraging .Fungus brought about 40-75 percent mortality in both the treated instars ,against to only 16.70 percent in control. Our results for dose toxicity level further got confirmation by one way ANOVA test. ‘F’ value was significant for both IVth (27.50) and Vth instars (24.41) at 1 percent level for different concentrations. Apart from toxicity, the fungus brought about characteristic abnormalities indicating its chitin inhibitory nature like blackening of body color, oozing out of fungal conidia from infected cuticle, white mycelial growth of fungal hyphae causing white mold disease. Thus the two fold cumulative effect of the fungus suggests the potential for using Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

Key words: Helicoverpa armigera, Beauveria bassiana,chitin inhibitor , ANOVA test, morphological abnormalities.
 
 
EFFECTS OF MELATONIN ON MERCURY INDUCED ENDOCRINE
TOXICITY IN THE RAT

M.V. Rao* and B.K. Chhunchha


Department of Zoology, University School of Scinces, Gujarat University, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad-380009, India. *Corresponding author E mail: zooldeptgu@satyam.net.in

Abstract :Effects of mercury chloride (MC; 2 and 4 mg/kg body wt.,po) and MC+Melatonin (MLT) (4mg+5mg/kg body wt., ip) were investigated in testis and adrenal for 60 days through certain steroidogenic parameters such as 3â and 17â hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), cholesterol and antioxidative indices like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH) catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Steroidogenic and antioxidative enzymes had a significant reduction while LPO and cholesterol levels increased significantly in a dose dependent manner in MC treated animals as compared to control groups. Co- treatment with MLT revealed no effect on these indices in the testis and adrenal of the rats. Thus, the results of present study strongly suggest that graded doses of MC affected steroidogenesis and antioxidant defense system and co treatment with MLT has a protective effect against mercury induced toxicity in these rats.

Key words: Mercury Chloride, Melatonin, Steroidogenesis, Testis, Adrenal, Antioxidant activity, Rats.
 
 
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON THE TRUNK BARK OF MITRAGYNA PARVIFOLIA (ROXB.) KORTH. (RUBIACEAE)

A. Subramanian1, V.R.Mohan*2, C. Kalidass2, A. Maruthupandian2


1Department of Botany, Sri K.G.S. Arts College, Srivaikundam. 2Ethnopharmacology unit, Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India – 628008.
*Corresponding author e-mail: vrmohan_2005@yahoo.com

Abstract: Several species of genus Mitragyna are extensively used in traditional medicine for treating opium addicts and as stimulant and pain reliever. From the exhaustive literature survey, it is found that so far no proper pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of trunk bark of Mitragyna parvifolia have been reported. M. parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth., known to the valaiyars as Neerkadambu is an important medicinal plant. The Valaiyan tribes, inhabitants of the Sirumalai hills, Madurai district, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu use this plant to relief from rheumatic pain. The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the trunk bark of the said plant.

Key words: Mitragyna parvifolia, trunk bark, pharmacognostic studies.
 
 
PHRMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF CYMBOPOGON MARTINII (ROXB.) WATSON.

J. R. Sanadiya, S. K. Parmar and N.R. Sheth*


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360 005, Gujarat.
Corresponding author Email: navin_sheth@yahoo.co. in

Abstract: Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Watson is an aromatic perennial grass. Essential oil obtain from this plant is used in perfumery and cosmetic industries. There is no proper pharmacognostical information regarding the leaves and stem of this plant. Therefore, an effort has been made for pharmacognostical evaluation which included examination of morphological and microscopical characters. These studied characters would be beneficial tool in identification and authentication of this plant.

Key words: Cymbopogon martini, Essential oil, Pharmacognostical evaluation.
 
 
INDIVIDUAL AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LEAF POWDERS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN., DATURA METEL LINN., VITEX NEGUNDO LINN. AND THEIR COMBINATION ON PEDICULUS HUMANUS

A. Sharma*, S. Shailajan and S. Menon


Herbal Research Lab, Ramnarain Ruia College, Matunga (East), Mumbai- 400019, India. *Corresponding author email: sunitashailajan@yahoo.co.in, abhishek220484@yahoo.com ,tdmlab1986@indiatimes.com +91-022-24154390.

Abstract: Chloroform extracts of leaves of Annona squamosa Linn. (Annonaceae), Datura metel Linn. (Solanaceae) and Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) were screened for their insecticidal activity against the head lice Pediculus humanus var capitis. Extract of Annona squamosa Linn. was significantly more active than that of Vitex negundo Linn. and Datura metel Linn. The results of current research work show that the leaf extracts of Annona squamosa Linn., Datura metel Linn. and Vitex negundo Linn., and their Polyherbal combination offer promise as new strategy in the treatment of head lice infestation. Contact toxicity study on head lice using leaf extract of Annona squamosa Linn. showed 23.75 ± 2.3528% morbidity and 36.25 ± 2.8970% mortality, while leaf extract of Datura metel Linn. showed 12.5 ± 2.8030% mortality and their was no morbidity observed. Leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn. showed 23.75 ± 3.3541% morbidity and 35 ± 1.6903% mortality. LC50 value for polyherbal combination
to head lice was found to be 600.1 ppm with 556.36 ppm as lower fiducial limit and 643.84 ppm as upper fiducial limit at 95% confidence level. Skin irritation test of polyherbal combination confirms its safety since no erythema, oedema and irritation were observed.

Key words: Annona squamosa Linn., Datura metel Linn., Vitex negundo Linn. Pediculus humanus var capitis and Polyherbal combination.
 
 
EVALUATION OF IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF CASSIA
AURICULATA LINN

G. S. Chakraborthy


SVKM’s, NMiMS University, School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, Shirpur Campus, Shirpur,
Maharashtra 425 405. E-mail: phdgs77@indiatimes.com

Abstract: Cassia auriculata Linn (caesalpiniaceae) known as Tanner’s Cassia is an important medicinal plant used in Traditional System of Medicine for treating various diseases like asthma, diabetes and stimulant. The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of Cassia auriculata in rats. Cassia auriculata was administered orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg to
healthy rats divided into five groups consisting of six animals each. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity was carried out by testing the humoral (antibody titre) and cellular (foot pad swelling) immune responses to the antigenic challenge by sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion test. On oral administration of the extract, a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion and delayed type hypersensitivity response whereas the humoral response to sheep RBCs was unaffected. Thus Cassia auriculata significantly potentiated the cellular immunity by facilitating the foot pad thickness responses to the sheep RBCs in sensitized rats. With a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg the DTH response (mean + S.D. % increase in paw volume). The responses were statistically significant when they were compared with the control. The study stated that Cassia auriculata shows a significant stimulation of the cell mediated immunity and no effects on the humoral immunity.

Key words: Cassia auriculata, Immunomodulatory activity, Delay type hypersensitivity
 
 
EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF SOME INDIAN
HERBAL PREPARATIONS

S. B. Dahikar and D. H. Tambekar


Post Graduate Department of Microbiology Sant Gadge Baba Amaravati University, Amaravati 444602- (INDIA) Corresponding author email: sbdahikar10@gmail.com Tel: +919423524679. +917212662206

Abstract: The antibacterial potentials of some herbal preparations namely Ajmodadi churna, Avipattikar churna, Manjistadi Churna, Panchasakar churna, Pipramool Churna, Pushyanug Churna No 2 , Sitopaladi churna, Sukhsarak churna, Swadist Virechan Churna and Trikatu Churna were investigated by preparing solvent extract using by disc diffusion method against some bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus vulgaris. Almost all the herbal preparation was found to most potent against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study support the use of these herbal preparations not only as supplement the diet but also as agent too preventing bacterial infections.

Key words: Antibacterial activity, Herbal preparation bacterial pathogens)
 
 
PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LEAF OF ALSTONIA MACROPHYLLA

M. S. Khyade and N. P. Vaikos


Department of Botany, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad - 431 004, [M.S.]
Corresponding author e mail- mskhyade@rediffmail.com, drvaikos@gmail.com

Abstract: Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G.Don (Apocynaceae), which is used in the traditional systems of medicine. The leaf is considered one of the important plant organs for the treatment of various disorders such as stomachic, skin diseases urinary infections, sprains, bruises and febrifuge. It is also known for its anticholeric and high vulnery effects. The present investigation has therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details. Morphological and anatomical aspects as well as differential
microchemical response have been worked out to identify the diagnostic features of the leaf. Physical constant values involving moisture content, ash and extractives as well as qualitative and quantitative estimation of various phytochemicals have been studied. The presence of lipid, saponin, tannin, alkaloid, phenol, steroid, flavonoid, and some other chemical constituents are recorded.

Key words: Alstonia macrophylla, leaf drug, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry.
 
 
AN EVALUATION OF IRON DEFICIENCY AND EFFECT OF LEAF CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON HAEMOGLOBIN LEVELS OF ADULT RATS

P. Joshi and B. Mathur


Department of Home science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India. Email:pulkitpal@gmail.com

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the progressive effects of iron deficiency in rats rendered anaemic on milk diet and the changes in the level of haemoglobin (Hb) in adult albino rats and after subsequent oral treatment with leaf concentrate (LC). The leaves included in the concentrate were of Alfalfa, Berscem, Amaranthus sp. and Lucerne. Iron deficiency negatively affected the general
appearance and the blood parameters affecting the morphology of the cells too, while repletion with leaf concentrate brought a significant change (P<0.05) in the haemoglobin levels of the experimental rats.

Key words: Depletion, Repletion, Leaf concentrate
 
 
A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF HD-
03/ES THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B: A
PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL STUDY

A.K. Bhattacharya and P. Patki


Department of Medicine, Government Medical College, Manjura Gate, Surat – 395001, Gujarat, India
** R & D Center, The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Bangalore-562123, India
Email : dr.patki@himalayahealthcare.com

Abstract: In-vitro studies indicated that HD-03 has surface antigen suppression and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus elimination activities. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies indicated that HD 03/ES is devoid of significant toxicity following acute and repeated administration in rats. This study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulation HD-03/ES capsules in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis-B infection. An open clinical study was carried out in one hundred and six patients with chronic hepatitis-B infection and was treated with HD-03/ES capsules twice daily in the morning and evening for a period of six months. Clinical, biochemical and HBV markers were monitored before and after initiation of therapy. Statistically significant improvements were observed in clinical, biochemical and HBV markers after administration of HD-03/ES capsules. Adverse effects were mild and never warranted withdrawal of the drug. The results of this preliminary study indicate that HD- 03/ES might be a safe and effective treatment for the treatment of chronic hepatitis-B.

Key words: HD-03/ES, Chronic hepatitis B, Clinical trial, HBsAg, ALT normalization, HBV DNA
 
 
CHANGES IN THE UTERINE PHOSPHATASES LEVELS IN FEMALE SWISS ALBINO MICE TREATED WITH CHROMATOGRAPHIC FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACTS OF VINCA ROSEA LEAVES

P. Gupta* and S. Mathur


Department of Zoology,Vedic Kanya PG College, Raja Park, Jaipur (Raj).India
*Corresponding author email:preetiharsh0@yahoo.com

Abstract: Petroleum ether and benzene (1 : 1 V/V) chromatographic fraction of the petroleum ether extracts of Vinca rosea (Catharanthus roseus) leaves when administered at the 5 mg / mouse/day dose to mated females, from day 7-9 postcoitum (pc), interrupts nidation. At this dose a statistically significant decline in alkaline and acid phosphatases content of the uterus of treated females was observed on day 12 pc. Study demonstrate that V.rosea leaves extract

Key words: Plants, Antifertility, uterus, Acid and Alkaline Phosphatases.
 
 
ACETYLCHOLINE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL LEAF
EXTRACT OF FICUS HISPIDA LINN IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

D. Sivaraman* and P. Muralidaran


*Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology,C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy,Jyothi Nagar,Thoraipakkam,Chennai 97,Tamil Nadu,India
*Correspondence authors mail: sivacologist@gmail.com, 09841575334, 04425522874

Abstract :The aim of the study is to evaluate the acetylcholine enhancing activity of methanol leaf extract of Ficus hispida Linn (MEFH). Treatment with 200 and 400 mg/kg of MEFH, for 30 days to postnatal ( 7 days old) and young adult rats, significantly increased acetylcholine (ACh) content in their hippocampus as compared to age matched controls. It was observed that increase in ACh content in hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory. Conclusively, MEFH was found to possess acetylcholine enhancing properties and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against age related memory disorders.

Key words: Ficus hispida Linn; Alzheimer’s disease; Acetylcholine; Hippocampus; Memory.
 
 
ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN FUNGAL PATHOGENS

V. Suvarna* and S. Patil


Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, S. V. K. M.’S, Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy,
Mithibhai College Campus, V. M. Road. Vile Parle (W), Mumbai - 400 056, India.
*Corresponding author email: vasantimmsuvarna@yahoo.com

Abstract :The antifungal activity of different crude extracts of leaves of selected medicinal plants was evaluated against two human pathogenic fungi which include Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. In the present investigation petroleum petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of leaves of different Indian medicinal plants including Mangifera indica Linn, Ixora parviflora Vahl, Psydium guajava Linn, Calotropis procera Ait., were obtained and investigated individually for in vitro antifungal activity by cup plate method. Of all the plants investigated for antifungal activity, the extracts of Psydium guajava and Ixora parviflora showed high antifungal activity against all the tested fungal pathogens.

Key words: Psydium guajava, Mangifera indica, Ixora parviflora, Calatropis procera, antifungal, cup plate method.
 
 
MOLLUSCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS

S. Sharma*, T. Singh and R. Vijayvergia


Plant Pathology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan,Jaipur
*Corresponding author email-Situ_2@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In present study, the molluscicidal activity of some medicinal plant i.e. Acalypha indica, Euphorbia hirta and Ricinus communis against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different preparations for mulluscs was time and dose dependent. According to these results it may conclude that, the ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis may be used for the pest management, however, further animal study is needed to confirm its physiological toxicity.

Key words: Molluscicidal activity, Lymnaea acuminata Acalypha indica, Euphorbia hirta, Ricinus communis.
 
 
GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF POTHOS SCANDENS LEAF

S.Lalitharani1, V.R.Mohan2* G.S. Regini3 AND C.Kalidass2


1Department of Botany, Bishop Cotton Women’s College, Bangalore- 560027. 2*Ethnopharmacology unit, Research Department of Botany, V.O. Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu-628008 3Research Department of Botany, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil - 629003.
*Corresponding author e-mail: vrmohan_ 2005@yahoo.com

Abstract: Pothos scandens L. known to the Kanikkars as “Paraioutan” is an important medicinal plants. The Kanikkar tribe, inhabitants of the Agasthiamalai Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, use this plant to reduce body heat and helps in conception. The present investigation deals with GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of the above said plant. Nineteen compounds were identified.

Key words: Pothos scandens L., Kanikkar , GC-MS analysis.
 
 
SCREENING OF SOME TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN PLANTS FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE

Y. Vaghasiya, S. Chanda*


Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Microbiological Laboratory, Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-360 005, Gujarat, India *Corresponding author e-mail : svchanda@gmail.com

Abstract: The increasing failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbial infectious agents have lead to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity [1,2]. Klebsiella pneumoniae is lately emerging as an important cause of neonatal nosocomial infection [3]. It is a Gram negative non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin and intestine [4]. Klebsiella pneumoniae is clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Entereobacteriaceae. New antibiotic resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are appearing and it is increasingly found as a nosocomial infection. Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause bacterial pneumonia, though it is more commonly implicated in hospital acquired urinary track and would infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Klebsiella pneumoniae is 2nd only to E. coli as urinary tract pathogen. It is an opportunistic pathogen for patients with chronic pulmonary disease, enteric pathogenicity, nasal mucosa atrophy and
rhinoscleroma.
 
 
EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF CLEMATIS ROYLEI

R. Singh1*, S. Gaidhani2 and R. Dayal3


1Pharmacopoeial Laboratory for Indian Medicine (PLIM), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. 2Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha), New Delhi, India 3Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, P.O. New Forest, Dehra D Corresponding author e-mail address: singhr2@rediffmail.com, Phone: 0120-2786554,2786585.

Abstract: Ethyl alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Clematis roylei Rehder syn. C. nutans was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan–induced rat paw edema. The extract produced a significant (p< 0.001) and dose dependent inhibition of the carrageenan-induced edema. The study demonstrated the antiinflammatory activity of the ethyl alcoholic extract of C. roylei Rehder syn. C. nutans.

Key words: Acute inflammation, anti-inflammatory, Clematis roylei extract
 
 
 

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